The PIP-II project at Fermilab includes the construction of a 215-meter-long particle accelerator that will accelerate particles to 84% of the speed of light. Research institutions in France, India, Italy, Poland, the UK and the United States are building major components of the new machine. The new particle accelerator will enable Fermilab to generate an unprecedented stream of neutrinos — subtle, subatomic particles that could hold the key to understanding the universe’s evolution.

This is PIP-II's very first low-beta 650-MHz cavity, which arrived at Fermilab on May 14. It is a present from the Italian institute INFN and was made by E. Zanon S.p.A. PIP-II, accelerator technology, accelerator, INFN, collaboration Photo: Andrew Penhollow

This is PIP-II’s very first low-beta 650-MHz cavity, which arrived at Fermilab on May 21. It is a present from the Italian institution INFN and was made by E. Zanon.

Fermilab is currently upgrading its accelerator complex to produce the world’s most powerful beam of high-energy neutrinos. To generate these particles, the accelerators will send an intense beam of protons traveling near the speed of light through a maze of particle accelerator components before passing through metallic “windows” and colliding with a stationary target. Researchers are testing the endurance of windows made of a titanium alloy, exposing samples to high-intensity proton beams to see how well the material will perform.

From Cambridge Network, Feb. 3, 2020: Representatives from UK Research and Innovation and the US Department of Energy have signed an agreement that outlines £65 million worth of contributions that UK research institutions and scientists will make to the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment and related projects hosted by Fermilab. DUNE will study the properties of mysterious particles called neutrinos, which could help explain more about how the universe works and why matter exists at all.