Particle physics research attempts to answer timeless questions – questions first asked thousands of years ago. In this video, Don Lincoln gives an overview of some of the most pressing unanswered questions of physics and describes how it is that scientists are deciding which of these questions to pursue.

In the Fermilab Linac, a klystron creates high-power radio waves which are used to accelerate the H- beam. The klystron itself is also a “mini” accelerator, but instead of protons, it accelerates electrons to create radio waves. Here are the internals of a klystron, where one can see the electron beam pipe in the center of the exposed cutout, along with the electron bunching cavities in between the cutouts.

From SLAC, August 31, 2022: Fermilab researchers worked with a team of 20 operators and engineers at SLAC on cryogenics to build a helium-refrigeration plant to lower the LCLS-II accelerator to superconducting temperatures. Now, it only takes one and a half hours to make a superconducting particle accelerator at SLAC colder than outer space.